Vaccine

 

The European I-MOVE network estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) using a multicentre test-negative design among symptomatic patients presenting at primary care level between October 2021 and March 2022. Preliminary influenza VE against influenza A among seven study sites and among all ages was 36% (95% CI: 13–53) and 41% (95% CI: 15–59) among those aged 18–64 years. All-age VE against influenza A(H3N2) was 35% (95% CI: 6–54) and 37% (95% CI: 3–59) among those aged 18–64 years. There were too few influenza-positive cases among other age groups to allow VE estimations.

In Sweden, the VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was estimated to be 47% for individuals over 65 years of age.

According to preliminary data in mainland France, the VE was estimated to be 50% (95% CI: 14-71) against all circulating influenza viruses, 77% (95% CI: 36-92) for A(H1N1)pdm09 and 31% (95% CI: -29-64) for A(H3N2).

For children aged 2 to 6 years in Denmark, the estimated VE against influenza A viruses was estimated at 63% (95% CI: 10.9–84.4) in those hospitalised, and 64% (95% CI: 50.5–74.1) in those non-hospitalised.

Preliminary results of 2021-2022 seasonal influenza VE estimates from the United States showed that VE against medically attended outpatient acute respiratory infection associated with influenza A(H3N2) virus was 16% (95% CI = −16% to 39%), this was interpreted to show that “influenza vaccination did not reduce the risk for outpatient medically attended illness with influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated so far this season.”

 

Available vaccines in Europe
https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/prevention-and-control/vaccines/types-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccine

 

  

Vaccine composition 

 

On 24 September 2021, WHO published recommendations for the components of influenza vaccines for use in the 2022 southern hemisphere influenza season:

 

The WHO recommends that quadrivalent vaccines for use in the 2022 influenza season in the southern hemisphere contain the following:

 

Egg-based Vaccines

 

·      an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2)-like virus;

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and

·      a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

 

Cell- or recombinant-based Vaccines

 

·      an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/6/2021 (H3N2)-like virus;

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and

·      a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

 

It is recommended that trivalent influenza vaccines for use in the 2022 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:

 

Egg-based vaccines

 

·      an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2)-like virus; and

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.

 

Cell- or Recombinant-based vaccines

 

·      an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/6/2021 (H3N2)-like virus; and

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus

The full report is published here

 

 

On 25 February 2022, WHO published recommendations for the components of influenza vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 northern hemisphere influenza season:

 

The WHO recommends that quadrivalent vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 influenza season in the northern hemisphere contain the following:

 

Egg-based Vaccines

 

·      an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2)-like virus;

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and

·      a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

 

Cell culture- or recombinant-based Vaccines

 

·      an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/6/2021 (H3N2)-like virus;

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and

·      a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

 

 

The WHO recommends that trivalent vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 influenza season in the northern hemisphere contain the following:

 

Egg-based vaccines

·      an A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2)-like virus; and

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.

 

Cell culture- or recombinant-based vaccines

·      an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;

·      an A/Darwin/6/2021 (H3N2)-like virus; and

·      a B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus